Investigation of Plasma Induced Cluster Formation and Thin Film Deposition.
The aim of the project is
to investigate a fundamental and most actual plasma physics problem, that
is the plasma induced generation of clusters and their incorporation in
deposited thin films. Although both processes are already widely used
in film production technologies (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition
(PECVD) reactors) and may be used for nano-particle production, the mechanisms
behind the structure formation are only understood globally. A deeper
insight in the formation of clusters and their incorporation in thin films
is needed to fully exploit these processes in industrial applications.
A simulation tool useful to assist in control of these should model the
processes in the plasma, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions
and gas dynamics processes (convection and diffusion), processes that
are strongly coupled and lead to self-organization.
The objectives of this interdisciplinary research involve both experimental
and theoretical investigations of self-organizing processes in RF-discharge
plasmas and the development of models of the low-temperature plasma-chemical
processes in the reactor chamber and processes on the deposited surface
layer. A so-called dusty plasma model taking into account nano-particle
formation will be developed. Novel plasma-deposition techniques (including
nano-sized silicon clusters deposition) for the production of a family
of silicon nano-structured films will be studied. Ways to control and
optimize the plasma process will be addressed by incorporating the plasma
model into a fully three- dimensional model for the gas dynamics. The
research activities are scheduled and distributed between participants
teams to achieve these objectives.
The following topics will be addressed:
- 2D models (gas dynamics approach and PIC method) for simulation of the
- Development of a model for nano-particle formation and the clustering
- Development of a model for the surface processes leading to the film
- Integration of the models into a 3D gas dynamics description that enables
studying the plasma process management and control;
- Validation of the models via experimental investigations silane plasmas
exhibiting the self-organized processes of cluster and surface structure
- Experimental investigation of cluster and film properties;
The expected results of the proposed research are as follows:
Scientifically, the study of the self-organized structure formation processes
under different conditions will lead to clarification of the fundamental
plasma properties. The scientific results of the project will be applicable
for simulation of processes in low-pressure PECVD reactors in general.
Due to the interdisciplinary character of the research, its execution
will favor progress in a number of important fields; e.g., plasma physics
and chemistry, physics of clusters and computer simulation of complicated
large scale strongly coupled problems. Technologically, application of
newly designed simulation tool will give a wide possibility both for researches
in the area and engineers to study the processes of film deposition and
particle formation in a variety of reactor geometries.
Self-organization process, plasma chemistry, RF-discharge, thin film deposition,
nano-particle formation, experimental investigation, simulation, thin
film production technologies
The papers forming the basis of the project
- U.J. Nienhuis. W..I. Goedheer, F.A.G, Hamers, W.G.J.H.M. van Sark, and J.Bezemer,
A self-consistent fluid model for RF discharges in SiH4-H2 compared to experiments.
J. Appl. Phys. Vol.82, 1997,pp.2061-2071.
- M. Yan, W.J.Goedheer. Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulations of Radio Frequency SiH4/H2 Discharges.
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 5, October 1999.
- M. Yan, W.J.Goedheer. A PIC-MC simulation of the effect of frequency on the characteristics of VHF SiH4/H2 discharges.
Plasma Sources Sci.Technol. 8(1999), pp.349-354.
- M.Yan, A.Bogaerts,RGijbels, W.J.Goedheer. Kinetic modeling of relaxation phenomena after photodetachment in a rf
electronegative SiH4 discharge. Phys.Rev. E, Vol. 63.
- M.Yan, A.Bogaerts,RGijbels, W.J.Goedheer. Local and fast relaxation phenomena after
laser-induced photodetachment in a strongly electronegative rf discharge. Phys.Rev. E, Vol. 65.
- O.Yu.Kravchenko, Yu.I.Chutov,W.J.Goedheer,R.D.Smirnov, S.Takamura. Dusty sheaths in plasmas.
Journal of nuclear materials, 313-316 (2003), 1109-1113.
- M.Yan, A.Bogaerts, W.J.Goedheer, RGijbels. Electron Energy Distribution Function in capacitively coupled RF discharges:
difference between electropositive Ar and electronegative SiH4 discharges. Plasma Sources Sci.Technol. 9 (2000) 583-591.
- M.Yan, A.Bogaerts, RGijbels, W.J.Goedheer. Spastial behavior of energy relaxation of electrons in capacitively coupled
discharges: Comparison between Ar and SiH4. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol 87, No. 8.
- Kraeva M.A., Malyshkin V.E. Assembly Technology for Parallel Realization of Numerical Models on MIMD-Multicomputers.
In the special issue of the International Journal on Future Generation Computer Systems, devoted to Parallel Computing Technologies. Vol. 17 (2001), No. 6, pp.755-765.
- Yu.E. Gorbachev, M.A. Zatevakhin. I.D. Kaganovich. Simple model for amorphous silicon film growth from HF-discharge
plasma. ESCAMP1G-92, Abstr. of invited lectures and contrib. papers, bl. by Europ- Phys.Soc,, 1992, St.-Petersburg. pp. 425 - 426,
- Yu.E. Gorbachev, M.A. Zatevakhin, I.D. Kaganovich. Simulation of the amorphous silicon film growth from HF-discharge
plasma. Proc. II International Forum on Heat and Mass Transfer, v. 11,
Heat and mass transfer in technological equipment, Minsk, Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer. 1992, pp. 180- 183.
- Yu.E. Gorbachev. YU.E. Gorbachev, M.A. Zatevakhin, I.D. Kaganovich,
Simulation of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films from an
rf discharge plasma, Tech. Phys. 41 (1996) 1247.
- M.A. Zatevakhin, Yu.E. Gorbachev. V.V. Krzhyzhanovskaya. a-Si-.H Film Growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films
during remote PECVD. Amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, All-Russian symposium, S.-Petersburg, 5-9 July 1998. p.24,
- Yu.F. Gorbachev. M A. Z.atevakhin. V.V. Krzhizhanovskaya V.A, Schweigert. Special Features of the
Growth of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon in PECVD Reactors. Tech, Phys., 45 (2000)1032.
- Yu.E. Gorbachev. I.S. Nikitin. Evolution of the cluster size distribution during nucleation with rapidly changing
dynamic processes. Tech, Phys.. 45 (2(100)1518.
- A.A.Ignatiev. Regular grid generation with mechanical approach. Mathematical Modeling, V. t2,N2,2000.pp. 101-105
- A.A. Ignatiev. A Difference Scheme For The Viscous Part ofNavier-Stokes Equations
// Mathematical modeling, v. 13, N 8, 2001, pp. 107-116
- Gorbachev Yu.E,, Zatevakhin Zatevakliin M.A.. Ignatiev A-A., Krzhizhanovskaya V.V., Protopopov V.Kh., Witenberg A.B. Gorbachev Yu.E., Schweigert V.A, Numerical simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes in PECVD reactors for a-S:H film deposition. XI Inlernational conference on
Computational Mechanics and Contemporary Applied Program Systems (CMCAPS-2001), Moscow-Istra, Russia, July 2-6, 2001,Pbl.:MAI,pp. 191-193
- Krhizhanovskaya V.V.. Zatevakliin M.A.- Ignatiev A.A,. Gorbachev Y.F., Sloot P.M.A. Distributed Simulation of Silicon-Based Film Growth.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2328, pp. 879-888. Springer-Verlag 2002. ISBN 3-540-43792-4.
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